Language Theory and Composition

Find an example in Ward’s article that supports the discussion in “Toxic Culture Syndrome” and “How R Tingz Dude”. Explain reasoning.

Language is a reflection of culture. The toxic culture syndrome is based on the acculturation that happens once people watch TV shows. The media, in general, is very powerful in shaping how people interact and may, to a large extent, lead to a change of language and influence people to adopt the toxic culture of the new language (Showkat, 2017). The TV shapes people’s beliefs; to a greater level; it is attached to the culture behind the language used to communicate (MAchan, 2016). The language that people speak has a great impact on their culture. Language can preserve the culture of the people. This is why colonial governments used language to convert people into embracing the culture of their colonial lords.

In Ward’s article, it is said that language is power. It can lead to communication and understanding, and it can also serve as a barrier to communication to isolate some people. The effect of the media is also evident in the “How R Tingz Dude” article that shows how teens have been impacted by the cellphones. This shows how language is important in impacting the culture of people. The article also says that language is a way of reinforcing the identity of people, which is their culture. It helps them grow their identity. Therefore, one would not be wrong to state that a language is indeed a reflection of their culture

Compare Ward’s argument to Shin’s position in “Missing Persons.” Explain.

Language is a tool for social change. Ward’s argument that people some languages may become extinct within the next century also reflects how people’s culture is going to change if it happens (Gelman & Roberts, 2017).  Some languages have very few people left who are fluent in them.  This makes them appear as missing persons due to not adapting to the changing global culture, which is accustomed to the universal use of the English language. This is evident in the statement that a minority language makes it hard for the social mobility of a language (Alarcon & Garzón, 2013). For example, suppose a person speaks the Sarcee language in a minority village in Australia.

In that case, they may not be able to communicate in many parts of the continent since the mobility of the language is hindered by the more dominant English language. People who hold on to their native minority languages with the noble aim of maintaining their social and cultural heritage may be viewed as missing persons in the face of social change brought about by the European and North American languages and cultures. According to Ward’s article, in the next century, many languages will lack people to speak and become extinct. We will be left with a few dominant languages that appear superior around the globe. These languages will, therefore, within the century, shape the social beliefs and norms of the people and eventually lead to social change that will be universal across regions where a similar language is spoken.

Find an example in Ward’s article that supports the discussion in “A Dead End for Humanity” and “The Next Battle over Language Law.” Explain your reasoning.

Those in power use language to get what they want.  Ward’s article indicates that language is not only a social tool but also a political tool. The article states that the government uses language to acquire its interests. It gave an example of the Spanish government when they invaded North America for colonization. For example, the dominance of the English language has led to minority regions being misused by European English-speaking nations (Eme & Mbagwu, 2011). This trend shows that the forecasted extinction of many inferior languages in the next century by Nichols will lead to a dead-end for humanity. It will possibly become a man-eat-man society.

Governments that have gained economic power and started depending on their resources are seen changing their first official language to their native language, replacing the language enforced by their colonial lords. Israel has recently rescued its Hebrew language, which was to become extinct. Governments are beginning to campaign and champion embracing their native languages as official languages to reclaim their global political power. On the other hand, the Europeans are forcing the English language into people, as indicated in the article that the Aboriginals have been forced into speaking English. This will form the next battle over language law, where political powers will campaign for languages that favor them and their interests (Mind, 2029).


Alarcon, A., & Garzón, L. (2013). Children of immigrants and social mobility in officially bilingual societies: The case of Catalonia. Spanish in Context · January 2013 DOI: 10.1075/sic.10.1.04ala, 1-19.

Eme, C. A., & Mbagwu, D. ( 2011). African Languages and African Literature. UJAH: Unizik Journal of Arts and Humanities Vol. 12 No. 1, 114-127.

Gelman, S. A., & Roberts, S. O. (2017). How language shapes the cultural inheritance. PNAS vol. 114 | no. 30, 7900–7907.

MAchan, G. J. (2016, September 3). TCS: Toxic Culture Syndrome: How to advance a culture of health & Wellbeing. Retrieved July 28, 2020, from OAKville News:

Mind, W. (2029, December 4). The Battle Over Language Policy in Russia and Former Soviet Republics. Retrieved July 28, 2020, from The World Mind:

Showkat, N. (2017). Media & Culture: A Theoretical Perspective of the Inter-relationship. National Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Development Volume 2; Issue 1, 55-60.