ECEA 300 Child Health, Safety and Nutrition

Sample Assignment 3

Resources provide the information necessary to complete the assignments. Unless otherwise stated, the page number(s) listed in each question, are found in the course textbook.

**You can always search the internet to understand the concepts presented at a deeper level. Please cite any sources that you use to answer any questions. Plagiarism is a serious issue. Please see the Student Handbook for more information. **

 

Grade Criteria:
A

80% or above

Student shows an advanced understanding of the readings. Reflection and connection include theories, concepts, and/or strategies presented in the course materials to date. Viewpoints and interpretations are insightful and well supported. Clear, detailed examples are provided, as applicable.
B

70-79%

Student shows an understanding of the readings.  Reflection and connection demonstrate a general understanding of the theories, concepts, and/or strategies presented in the course materials to date. Viewpoints and interpretations are supported.  Appropriate examples are provided, as applicable.
C (pass)

60-69%

Student shows some understanding of the readings. Reflection and connection demonstrate a minimal reflection on, and personalization of, the theories, concepts, and/or strategies presented in the course materials to date. Viewpoints and interpretations are unsupported or supported with flawed arguments. Examples, when applicable, are not provided or are irrelevant to the assignment.
DNC -Did not complete course. Student has not shown understanding of the readings. Reflection and connection demonstrate a lack of reflection on, or personalization of, the theories, concepts, and/or strategies presented in the course materials to date. Viewpoints and interpretations are missing, inappropriate, and/or unsupported. Examples, when applicable, are not provided.

 Part 1 Think Deeper

  1. Describe the Determinants of Health as listed in Figure 8-1 on page 243.
  1. Why is it important to complete a health evaluation before a child starts an Early Childhood Education program? (Page 261)
  1. What is a health evaluation?
  2. Is it also important to complete ongoing assessments including daily health checks and continual observation? Why?
  3. What specific information should be included in a daily health check? (Page 285)
  1. Is health information personal and private? Should health information be obtained respectfully, used appropriately, and managed confidentially? (Page 262)  
  1. The authors in the textbook state that an individual’s race, culture, and ethnic background influences how they perceive health and illness, and that health disparity exists. What can an educator do to provide a family with support to promote health and well-being? (Page 255)
Ways to promote health and well being What can be done?
Recognize stereotype and prejudice
Promoting acceptance in the classroom
Supporting families who do not speak English
  1. Why is it important to encourage caregivers to complete hearing and vision screening and daily health checks for their child? (Page 281)
  1. There are several classroom practices for controlling the spread of disease including hand washing, conducting daily health checks, and cleaning and sanitizing. Sanitary practices are especially important when diapering and toileting. As an educator, a large portion of your day is spent diapering and assisting with toileting. As a result, there are many opportunities for germs that pose severe health risks to spread in a childcare facility. Like handwashing, when diapering and toileting are done correctly, the spread of germs and illness decreases, resulting in better health for all. (Page 298)

Read: HealthLink BC- Tips for Diapering a Newborn Baby

https://www.healthlinkbc.ca/pregnancy-parenting/parenting-babies-0-12-months/newborns/tips-diapering-newborn-baby

Describe important sanitary and safety practices when diapering and toileting. (Page 301)

  1. Common childhood infections are caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites. Each infection has its own set of characteristics with respect to mode of transmission, symptoms, and incubation period. Describe the symptoms of common diseases. Children born in other countries who immigrate or are adopted here can have a higher risk of certain infections. These children should have appropriate immunizations and health assessments (Page 294)
Illness Description
Fever
Cough
Rash
Vomiting
Diarrhea
Respiratory Tract Illness
Skin Infection and Rashes
Pertussis (Whooping Cough) (Page 307)
Chicken Pox
Measles
Tetanus
Influenza (The Flu)
Common cold (Page 309)
Conjunctivitis (Pinkeye)
Croup
Ear Infections
Head Lice (Page 312)
Asthma (Page 335)
Skin allergies (Page 337)
  1. What are special health care needs? (Page 323)
  1. How do teachers contribute to the education and development of children with special health care needs?
  1. The symptoms of a nervous system problem depend on which area of the nervous system is involved and what is causing the problem. Nervous system problems may occur slowly and cause a gradual loss of function (degenerative), or they may occur suddenly and cause life-threatening problems (acute). Symptoms may be mild or severe. Complete the table below. (Page 338)
Condition Describe classroom management strategies that can be used to support the child. List one outside agency that can support the child, family and/or center.
attention deficit disorder and attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder
autism
learning disabilities (Page 341)
cerebral palsy
fetal alcohol spectrum disorder
intellectual disability
  1. Genetic disorders are diseases that are caused by an abnormality in the genome. Abnormalities can range from a small mutation in a single gene to the addition or subtraction of an entire chromosome or set of chromosomes. Most Genetic disorders are present from birth and are quite rare, often affecting only one person in every several thousand or million. Genetic disorders are usually heritable and are passed down from the parents’ genes. Complete the table below. (Page 345)
Condition Describe classroom management strategies that can be used to support the child. List one outside agency that can be support the child, family and/or center.
cystic fibrosis
sickle cell anemia
diabetes
down syndrome (Page 350)
muscular dystrophy
seizure disorder
epilepsy
  1. Children may communicate differently. Figure 11-3 identifies speech and language impairments (Page 353). Educators need to have a basic understanding of medical conditions that may affect a child’s growth and development.
    1. What is speech impairment?
    2. What is a language impairment?
  2. What is a receptive language disorder?
  3. What is an expressive language disorder?
    1. List 2 possible classroom management strategies in identifying children with speech and language impairments.
    2. How important is it for an educator to record and maintain children’s records in an accurate, objective, and respectful way?
    3. How important is it for the educator to provide input into the child’s Individual Education Plan (IEP), be prepared for meetings and work closely with the child’s advocates and other relevant agencies?
    4. Can an educator advocate on behalf of, and with children in their families?
    5. Can an educator provide referrals to a wide variety community services?
    6. Can an educator support families in their initial on going contact with other agencies and services?
    7. How important is it for an educator to share information with the family in a confidential, respectful, and professional manner?
    8. How important is it for an educator to share information about children and families respectfully and confidentially during an IEP meeting?
  1. There are several biological, environmental, and developmental factors that influence mental health in young children. Children’s emotional well-being during their early years has a powerful impact on their social relationships. Children who are emotionally healthy are better able to establish and maintain positive relationships with adults and peers.
  1. Analyze Tables 12-1 and 12-2. (Page 365). What important information is contained in these tables? Is it important for an educator to promote social and emotional development?
  2. Describe ways an educator can support growth in the social and emotional domain. (Page 370)

 

Ways to support social and emotional development Describe each area. Why is each area important? Describe 2 ways an educator can support a child in this area.
Establishing and building healthy relationships
Developing self-concept and self-efficacy
Developing self-regulation
Developing resilience
Creating supportive environments (Page 374)
Providing appropriate play

Part 2 Connect and Reflect

  1. A parent asks you what your center does to promote healthy social and emotional development and asks you to send your response by email. Pretend to write an email to this parent and describe characteristics of supportive environments that promote mental health. (Page 370)

            Start your email with Dear Mr. Khan,

Include:

  • Building healthy relationships
  • Developing self-concept, self-regulation, and self-efficacy
  • Creating supportive environments
  • Establishing and maintaining caring relationships
  • Building attachment
  • Providing developmentally appropriate play
  1. Biological health hazards include bacteria, viruses, parasites, molds and fungi. They can pose a threat to human health when they are inhaled, eaten, or come in contact with skin. They can cause illness such as food poisoning, tetanus, respiratory infections, or parasite infections. Biological hazards are common and cannot be seen.

Read: HealthLink BC- Foodborne Illness and Safe Food Handling

https://www.healthlinkbc.ca/health-topics/foodborne-illness-and-safe-food-handling#:~:text=If%20you%20have%20questions%20about,can%20Email%20a%20HealthLinkBC%20Dietitian

  1. What is foodborne illness? (Answers from the HealthLinkBC link above)
  2. What are the symptoms?
  3. How do harmful germs get into food?
  4. How can you prevent foodborne illness?
  5. When should an educator call the parent and/or 911?
  6. How can you make your own no-rinse sanitizing solution? (Page 117)
  1. Opinions vary related to allowing children to attend school when they have head lice. (Page 312)

Read: HealthLink BC- Head Lice

https://www.healthlinkbc.ca/healthlinkbc-files/head-lice

  1. What are head lice? (Answers from the HealthLinkBC link above)
  2. Do head lice cause illness or spread disease?
  3. How are head lice spread?
  4. What are 2 safe options for treating head lice?
  5. What are the policies related to head lice in the early childhood programs in your area?
  1. Equal access to education and appropriate inclusion is a human right for all children. (Page 326)
    1. Explain the concept of ensuring access to education for all children including children with disabilities.
    2. What is appropriate inclusion?
    3. How important is equal access to education and inclusion of children with chronic medical conditions or social and emotional challenges? (Page 364)
    4. How important is it to follow a child’s Individualized Health Plan and/or Individual Education Plan? (In Canada, most jurisdictions create and use IEP’s)
    5. Chronic health conditions may be unfamiliar to other children in the classroom. Other children may have questions they wish to ask, and some children may be scared of a child’s physical appearance or their behavior. Children’s literature (page 332) and lesson plans (page 333) can be used to educate other children. Why is it important to make other children in the class aware and informed about another child’s uniqueness (differences)? Should you ask permission from the child’s parents before doing an entire class lesson?
  2. Children with health care needs may need to take medicine throughout the day. Policies and procedures must be followed when giving children medication. Educators must safely store and record when they have administered medication. Analyze Figure 11-1 (Page 330).
    1. What important information is contained on this form?
    2. How important is parent permission to administer medication?
    3. How important is it to partner with families?

Part 3 Theory into Practice

  1. Personal hygiene is at the root of our overall heath. By taking care of your body in small ways every day, you can prevent many health conditions that are related to poor hygiene.

Read the information about personal hygiene below. This information is from the Child Care Licensing Regulation.

Health and hygiene

46 (1)A licensee must establish a program to instruct children in, and to practice the rules of, health and hygiene.

(2)A licensee must ensure that any surface used for food preparation, storage or consumption is not used for changing diapers.

Stacey is a child in your care. Stacey’s personal hygiene is lacking. Often, she comes to school without brushing her teeth or hair, wearing dirty clothes, and having body odor. The other children are noticing. Her mother has stated that she is refusing to look after her personal hygiene.

  1. How can an educator promote proper hygiene?
  2. How important is proper hand washing? (Page 114)
  3. Describe the steps in washing hands. Figure 4-13 (Page 115)
  1. Design a lesson plan to promote hand washing.

Thoughtfully created lesson plans ensure that programming is informed by knowledge of each child’s unique needs, stage of development, and learning style. An effective lesson plan will ensure children learn and have fun while meeting necessary learning goals using evidence-based principles and practices. A lesson will not contain all the principles and practices below, but an educator should strive to include as many as possible.

When planning a lesson include the following practices and principles:

  • Be play based
  • Promote inclusion and diversity
  • Develop the whole child: social and emotional, cognitive, physical, communicative, and cultural development
  • Include an appropriate balance of child-initiated, adult guided, structured, and open-ended activities
  • Use a variety of teaching methods and include children’s literature
  • Be developmentally appropriate, stimulating and interest the child
  • Provide opportunities to participate in individual, small and large group activities
  • Programming should be culturally appropriate and affirming and be consistent with the philosophy and policies of the center
  • Share responsibility for program planning, evaluation, and implementation amongst all staff members
  • Improve programming based on self reflection, current research and emerging trends that reflect good practice
  • Follow the format design below:
  • Teaching wellness message:
  • Learning outcome:
  • Vocabulary focus:
  • Safety watch:
  • Target age group:
  • Goal:
  • Materials:
  • Activity Plan:
  • How to adjust the activity:
  1. Read the information around Medication, Illness and Notification of illness below. This information is from the Child Care Licensing Regulation.

Division 3 — Illnesses

Medication

53 (1) Subject to subsection (1.1), if a licensee has agreed with a parent to give a child any medication prescribed by a medical practitioner or provided by the parent, the licensee and his or her employees must ensure that the medication is

(a)administered to the child in the amount and at the times specified by the child’s parent or in the child’s record or care plan, and

(b)readily accessible to employees.

(1.1) A licensee who provides a care program described as Child-minding must not

(a)agree to give a child any medication as described in subsection (1), and

(b)give, or permit an employee to give, a child any medication unless the medication is immediately necessary to address a significant risk to the child’s health.

(2)A licensee must ensure that a child’s medication is not accessible to any child, except that a child may have access to his or her own medication if

(a)the child’s parent has instructed the licensee to permit this, and

(b)the nature of the child’s medication is such that, without immediate access to the medication by the child, the child’s health will be significantly at risk.

(3)A licensee must ensure that at all times an employee is available who is competent to either

(a)administer a child’s medication as instructed by the child’s parent or required by the child’s record or care plan, or

(b)if, by the parent’s instructions or under the child’s care plan, the child is permitted to self-administer the medication, supervise the administration of a child’s medication.

(4)A licensee must ensure that an employee who supervises a child who self-administers medication documents the administration of the medication

(a)in the child’s care plan, or

(b)in the child’s record, in the case of a licensee who provides a care program described as Recreational Care.

[am. B.C. Regs. 202/2011, s. 15; 130/2021, s. 17.]

Child who becomes ill

54 If a child becomes ill while under the care of the licensee, a licensee must

(a)provide in the community care facility a quiet and clean resting area for the child, and

(b)ensure that the child is under the close supervision of,

(i)if the licensee provides a care program described as Child-minding, the child’s parent, or

(ii)in any other case, a responsible adult.

[am. B.C. Reg. 202/2011, s. 16.]

  1. Find a policy from a childcare centre that follows the Medication, Illness and Notification of illness requirements outlined above. Be sure that this policy aligns with the criteria set by the Child Care Licensing Regulation.
  2. Why is it important to have a policy around Medication, Illness and Notification of illness and injury in a childcare centre?
  3. Describe the role of the educator in developing, implementing, and maintaining comprehensive policies and procedures about sick and injured children and those with other health care needs such as allergies, and diets as outlined in the Child Care Licensing Regulation.
  4. Describe the role of the educator in developing, implementing, and maintaining comprehensive policies and procedures for storing and administering medications as outlined in the Child Care Licensing Regulation.
  5. Describe the role of the educator in storing and administering medications as outlined in the Child Care Licensing Regulation.
  6. Describe the role of the educator in developing, implementing, and maintaining policies and procedures for obtaining and recording the appropriate legal guardians’ consent for all necessary activities.
  7. Find a Record of Illness sheet that could be used in the center. What important information is on this sheet? (Page 305)
  8. Should children be sent home if they are not well? Explain your thinking.
  1. Anxiety disorders cause extreme fear and worry, and changes in a child’s behavior, sleep, eating, or mood. Anxiety refers to anticipation of a future concern and is more associated with muscle tension and avoidance behavior. Fear is an emotional response to an immediate threat and is more associated with a fight or flight reaction – either staying to fight or leaving to escape danger. (Page 383)

Read HealthLink BC- Anxiety

https://www.healthlinkbc.ca/health-topics/anxiety

Natasha constantly worries and displays symptoms of trembling, sweating and trouble concentrating. You feel that Natasha is displaying symptoms of anxiety.

(Answers from the HealthLinkBC link above)

  1. What is anxiety?
  2. What strategies can be used to support Natasha?
  3. What is a trauma-informed classroom? (Page 377)
  4. Early adversity, stress and threats can lead to a variety of short- and long-term negative health effects. It can disrupt early brain development and compromise the functioning of the nervous and immune systems. The more adverse experiences in childhood, the greater the likelihood of developmental delays and other problems. Despite adversity, many children develop resilience.
    1. What is resilience? (Page 373)
    2. List the factors that increase resilience.
  • Analyze the lesson plans to develop a child’s resilience on page 411. What are the wellness messages?
  1. How important is it for the educator to build caring and nurturing relationships with children to develop resilience?
  2. How important is it for the educator to build attachment with children to develop resilience?
  3. Educators often report inappropriate behavior to caregivers. How important is it for the educator to also share positive feedback about a child’s development and progress to a child’s parents?
  • Describe how the concepts of resilience and self-esteem are related.
  • Is it important for an educator to provide resources for parents on the importance of building a child’s self esteem.