Sample Annotated Bibliography in APA

Chaar, S. A. A., & Easa, N. F. (2020). Does transformational leadership matter for innovation in banks? The mediating role of knowledge sharing. International Journal of Disruptive Innovation in Government, 1(1), 36-57.

Chaar and Easa examine the relationship between transformational leadership, knowledge sharing, and innovation. According to their findings, transformational leaders encourage knowledge sharing that enables people to share ideas and generate processes and products. Thus, this article strengthens the role knowledge sharing plays in enhancing the influence of transformational leadership on innovation in the banking sector. I work in the Bank of Princeton; my leadership plan will involve using transformational leadership theory to promote knowledge sharing and innovation.

Therefore, this article will be helpful since it demonstrates how the organization can mobilize employees to engage in innovation by promoting a knowledge-sharing culture.  However, though Chaar and Easa’s findings support my claim that transformational leadership boosts knowledge sharing and innovation within a bank, they have some limitations that may affect the credibility of my leadership plan. For example, the research is based on a developing country, Lebanon, and therefore, the outcomes may not apply to a developed country like the US. Besides, cultural differences between Asian countries and the US may have a significant effect on the findings.    

Liu, H., & Li, G. (2018). Linking transformational leadership and knowledge sharing: The mediating roles of perceived team goal commitment and perceived team identification. Frontiers in Psychology9, 1331.

Liu and Li attempt to identify the mechanisms through which transformational leaders facilitate knowledge sharing by recommending two team-directed interceding mechanisms: perceived team identification and perceived team goal commitment. After reading this article, I realized that it does not explain how knowledge sharing leads to innovation among subordinates. However, since knowledge sharing is a key step to the successful implementation of my proposed leadership plan, I will use this article to demonstrate how leaders’ behaviour encourages employees to share information. I have also noticed that the research findings are based on a Chinese firm, and I think this may limit its applicability in my organizational context.  

Al Ahmad, S., Easa, N. F., & Mostapha, N. (2019). Transformational leadership and innovation at the Lebanese banking industry. International Journal of Economics and Business Administration. 7(4). 267-292

This article explores the impact of transformational leadership on two aspects of innovation: process and product innovation. The research outcomes showed that TL is important in enhancing innovation in the banking sector. My proposed leadership plan will infer from this paper to show how transformational leadership can produce better outcomes for the Bank of Princeton by encouraging employees to engage in innovative processes and products.

I find this source exceptionally useful since the research was conducted in a banking organization. However, though it provides useful insights concerning the relationship between TL and innovation in banks, it has various drawbacks that I will consider when preparing the plan. For example, it focuses exclusively on the effect of transformational leadership on banking processes and products innovation. It does not show how this leadership style affects other types of innovation such as technological, administrative, and incremental innovation.

Asada, N., Hashmib, H. B. A., Nasirc, M., & Khalidd, A. (2021). Transformational Leadership Relationship with Employee Creativity: The Moderating Effect of Knowledge Sharing and Mediating Effect of Creative Self-Efficacy. International Journal of Innovation, Creativity and Change15(8).

This article examines the relationship between transformational leadership and employees’ creative performance and knowledge sharing. However, this objective is not clearly laid out in the paper’s ambiguous title. The results indicated that there is a strong positive correlation between transformational leadership and employee creativity and self-efficacy. When leaders foster creative behaviour among subordinates, they cultivate knowledge-sharing culture. Despite the usefulness of this source in preparing my leadership plan, I think the interpretations were biased. The authors acknowledge this when they say “though researcher attempted to control the common biases, however, there are huge chances for the inflated relationship due to variance of common method.”

Gonnah, B. J., & Ogollah, K. (2016). Effect of transformational leadership on performance of commercial banks in Kenya: Case of Family Bank Limited. International Academic Journal of Procurement and Supply Chain Management2(1), 1-25.

Gonnah and Ogollah argue that although transformational leadership is associated with positive results, it can lead to employee dissatisfaction and general performance. They conclude that TL contributes to intellectual stimulation that significantly affects people’s creativeness and performance. After reading this article, I have realized that refutes my general claim that transformational leadership fosters innovativeness and knowledge sharing. However, I find it useful since it enables to identify possible critics to my plan and how to rectify them before implementation.

Also, the article recommends that line managers should encourage sharing and teamwork, and care about employees’ personal life. Though this is not part of my plan, it is worthwhile to advocate for work-life balance especially in the banking sector. I feel Princeton’s top leadership underestimate the significance of caring about workers’ personal life. Work-life balance affects the general well-being of staffs. It even influences their creativity and innovativeness. 

Agyenim-Boateng, I. S., & Ghansah, K. (2019). The Effect of Transformational Leadership on Company Innovation Culture: Perspectives from the Service Sector of an Emerging Economy. International Journal of Human Resource Studies9(3), 273-297. 

Due to its limited scope, this article will be partially useful in the preparation my leadership. The author acknowledges this by stating “some leadership styles encourage knowledge sharing which leads to innovation but that is beyond the scope of this paper.” Despite this limitation Agyenim-Boateng and Ghansah focus on the significance of transformational leadership on organizations’ innovation culture. They reveal that transformational leaders encourage their followers to think outside the box and use their knowledge to achieve better results. Thus, will rely on their work to convince Princeton’s top management why it is worthwhile to adopt a leadership style that promotes innovation culture.  

Son, T. T., Phong, L. B., & Loan, B. T. T. (2020). Transformational leadership and knowledge sharing: determinants of firm’s operational and financial performance. Sage Open10(2),

At first I thought the researchers study the relationship between transformational leadership and knowledge. After reading it, I noted it examines the effect of transformational leadership and knowledge sharing on organizational performance in Chinese firms. However, the authors support my proposal that “employees become more innovative and ready to share expertise knowledge with the others under the leadership of transformational leaders.” Another reason that prompted me to use this article is that it is backed up with evidence from numerous sources that argue for my plan. Since Princeton’s bottom line is profitability, I will use this source to demonstrate how leadership, knowledge sharing, and innovation relate to enhance financial performance.  

Akay, E., & Demirel, A. G. (2017). Transformational leadership and innovation: An empirical study of direct and indirect effects in HR consulting companies. International Journal of Business and Management13(1), 131-142.

Akay and Demirel explore the effect of transformational leadership on a company’s level of innovation through the intervening impact of knowledge management and organizational learning. Their findings indicated that transformational leaders cultivate organizational innovation through the mediating effect of learning and knowledge management. However, this article may affect the credibility of my proposed leadership plan since it is based on Turkish HR consulting companies not on the banking sector. I have decided to use it since it explains a crucial component of my proposal. It argues that “transformational leadership does not directly influence organizational innovation.” This means that Princeton’s leaders will not be able to make the employees innovative by just being transformative. They need to provide them with requisite skills, stimulus, and information that trigger their innovativeness.   

Kozioł-Nadolna, K. (2020). The Role of a Leader in Stimulating Innovation in an Organization. Administrative Sciences10(3), 59.
Kozioł-Nadolna reflects on leadership and how it contributes to stimulating innovation. He suggests that leaders should play various roles in order to stimulate innovation among the employees. For example, they need to be promoters by rewarding innovative behavior. They also need to be creators and create employee creativity. One major shortcoming of this article is that it assumes a general approach of the topic. It does not focus on a specific leadership style. Nevertheless, I will use it borrows heavily from other sources that support the idea that transformational leadership stimulates employees to generate and implement innovations. It contains authentic experimentation, research, and in-depth studies.

Benlamri, R., & Sparer, M. (Eds.). (2016). Leadership, innovation and entrepreneurship as driving forces of the global economy: proceedings of the 2016 international conference on leadership, Innovation and entrepreneurship (ICLIE). Cham: Springer International Publishing : Imprint : Springer.

This book explains the essential principles behind leadership, entrepreneurship, and innovation and shows how interrelationships between them promote trade and business practices in the current world of commerce. Benlamri and Sparer derived this book from the 2016 International Conference on Leadership, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship (ICLIE). The source contains original articles presenting current research, innovations and discoveries from various fields like medicine, engineering, social sciences, and business. I will use it to promote a better understanding of current issues pertaining to leadership and its effect on innovation. However, this book may affect the reliability of my plan since it is not well-backed up with evidence from other secondary sources.    

Van Tiem, D. M., & Burns, N. C. (2020). Performance Improvement: HPT Model. In Cases on Performance Improvement Innovation (pp. 1-9). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.

According to the authors, this book is designed for academicians, educators, practitioners, managers, executives, researchers, and students seeking contemporary research on current innovations in organizational performance. It teaches business owners how they can use leadership to enhance innovation. However, it does not emphasize on transformational leadership and the issue of knowledge sharing. I have decided to use it in compiling my leadership plan since it demonstrates how companies can grow employees’ creativity through leadership. 

Khandelwal, A. K. (Ed.). (2021). Transformational Leadership in Banking: Challenges of Governance, Leadership and HR in a Digital and Disruptive World. SAGE Publishing India.

One of the important aspects of this source is currency. It was published barely seven months ago. By using it, I will show the users of my leadership plan that I am up-to-date with my recommendations. It will affirm that my proposal is not archaic because it is based on recent information. What is more, the author; Anil K. Khandelwal is an exceptionally qualified professional in banking. He is the Former Chairman & Managing Director, Bank of Baroda, India. In this book, Khandelwal provides a leadership roadmap that can convert adversities into opportunities for transformation. He uses interviews, case studies, and articles offer a way forward for the transformational leadership of banks. I do not think his work will have any shortcoming apart from the fact the intended audience is Indian banks.